Mesopotamia And Ancient Egypt Essays

Egypt And Mesopotamia Essay


Two of the earliest and greatest civilizations, Mesopotamia and Egypt, show the transition from a Paleolithic society into a settled civilization. Both cultures had established kings; however, the Pharaoh is the god-king of Egypt, while in Mesopotamia the monarchs are priest-kings whom serve the gods. Although Mesopotamia and Egypt have some characteristics in common, which bring them under the “First Civilizations” category, their different views and beliefs about divine authority and how it is practiced set these civilizations apart and make them unique.
Both Mesopotamia and Egypt were affiliated with divine authority. The priest-king of Mesopotamia and the pharaoh of Egypt were both closely tied to religious institutions. Even though both civilizations carried out their roles of kingship in different ways, the duties and responsibilities that they had to take were the same in many aspects. The two major roles as a priest-king or pharaoh were order and protection. They were in charge of maintaining peace and justice between not only the people of civilization, but also outsiders. He was looked upon as a religious who carried out religious, political, and social rituals and functions. Not only was he looked upon as a religious leader, but also as a military leader. They had to lead their armies into battle, and decide what was best for the people at the moment. Hammurabi, for example, was one of the greatest kings of Mesopotamia. Not only was he a successful military leader and administrator, but also believed in justice, which is why he created laws that governed Babylon called the Code of Hammurabi. An example of a great Egyptian

pharaoh was Hatshepsut, the first female to rule Ancient Egypt. During her reign, Egypt’s economy flourished and trade relations expanded.
Although the kings of both lands were closely tied to religious institutions they had very different...

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Egypt and Mesopotamia: A Societal and Religious Comparison

715 words - 3 pages The Egyptian and Mesopotamian religion and society were similar, but their government system was different. The religions in Egypt and Mesopotamia were similar because both were polytheistic, had beliefs of an afterlife, as well as priests who were part of the upper levels of the social hierarchy. Social similarities between Egypt and Mesopotamia included: rigid social structure, dependence on slavery, and authoritative religious structure....

Comparison essay on Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt, one page max

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Legal systems, their development, uses and importance in Egypt and Mesopotamia

555 words - 2 pages Legal systems are one of the essential parts of having a major civilization. With legal system rulers are able to control the masses while keeping a controlled status. With these commoners are aware of what are the consequences if they do not follow the determined set of laws. Most of the ancient civilizations legal systems were based in a totalitarian form of rule, meaning that one single person had supreme power over everyone. Such was the...

How Did the Geographic Features of Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia Impact Civilization Development?

2109 words - 8 pages Section A: Plan of Investigation During the years of 3500 BC to 2500 BC, the geography of a land often impacted a civilizations development in great measures. Depending on the resources available or the detriments present due to certain topographical characteristics like rivers or deserts, a civilization could flourish or collapse. By studying the geographic features of growing societies like the Nile, Euphrates, and Tigris Rivers as well as the...

Similarities in the Artwork of Mesopotamia, Ancient Egypt, the Aegean cultures, and Ancient Greece

1028 words - 4 pages The artworks of Mesopotamia, Ancient Egypt, the Aegean cultures, and Ancient Greece have similarities that not only reflect objects and images, but also the media, style and representation. These countries were not always wealthy, clever, creative and powerful enough to gain supplies, but they all find a way to create art with what they had. They have all influenced on each other’s cultures and belief through their artistic values and ways,...

The Indus Valley Civilization was the first civilization to develop in South Asia. This civilization developed around 2500 BC, similar to when the civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia, and China were...

1732 words - 7 pages Culture in the Indus Valley CivilizationThe Indus Valley Civilization was the first civilization to develop in South Asia. This civilization developed around 2500 BC, similar to when the civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia, and China were first established. Unlike the other civilizations the...

Ancient Egypt vs. Ancient Mesopotamia

568 words - 2 pages Thousands of years ago, there were two ancient civilizations, Egypt and Mesopotamia. Both were quite remarkable in technology and language, but each civilization had different advances. These two ancient cultures were also located close to each other, but their geographies were a bit different resulting in varied farming methods. The last thing that Egypt and Mesopotamia both had was religion, though each of their religious practices was unique....

Importance Of Water For Ancient Egypt Vs. Mesopotamia

701 words - 3 pages World History Assignment #2 Water was more important to the development of a working civilization in Ancient Egypt than Mesopotamia for the following reasons: irrigation, drinking, resources and trade. Although these factors were used by both Egypt and Mesopotamia, the latter had a better understanding and control over water than Mesopotamia. Mesopotamia (3500 B.C.E. - 530 B.C.E.) was located in northeast Syria, which is...

Mesopotamian And Egyptian Rulers

895 words - 4 pages There are a few similarities between the attitudes that people, in both Mesopotamia and Egypt, had about their rulers. Despite theses similarities, there were also significant differences. There were very different definitions of who ruled, and how they ruled, each land.Mesopotamia was the first identifiable civilization in the Ancient world. Located between the Tigris and

Ancient Civilizations.

772 words - 3 pages Chapter 1Compare Mesopotamian civilization with Egyptian civilization.Mesopotamia and Egypt were both ruled by strong leader that the people thought were gods or descendents from God. In Egypt they were called pharaohs and in Mesopotamia they were simply kings. Both civilizations went through some kind of political consolidation at some point in their...

What are the first few civilizations? If so, why is

545 words - 2 pages What are the first few civilizations? If so, why is it that they are considered civilizations, and what about them? The first few river-valley civilizations are considered to be civilizations by our scholars, and each of those civilizations' characteristics, advantages by creating societies, and things that we should remember will prove them to be civilizations---as well as explain a little bit about each of those civilizations. ...

Comparison between Mesopotamia and Egypt Essay

Mesopotamia and Egypt were two civilizations that while similar in some ways, also had many differences. Not only did they differ in the geographical layout of the civilization, but also in many aspects of basic life. Although different in many aspects of life, there are also several similarities between the two civilizations.

Mesopotamia was originally focused in the river-valley between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, but the civilization eventually spread throughout an entire region. The Mesopotamia culture was affected by the erratic and sometimes destructive flooding from the two rivers. In contrast, the Egyptian civilization remained focused on the Nile River and the surrounding deserts. The Egyptian culture viewed the Nile River as a source of unending bounty to be received with thanks, not as a menacing cause of floods.


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Unlike Mesopotamia, Egypt moved almost directly from the pre-civilization state to a civilization ruled by a large government without passing through the city-state phase. Because the culture was unified around the Nile river, the authoritarian government in Egypt had fewer problems with its political structure than did Mesopotamia. Because it was considered to b a city-state, Mesopotamian provided the opportunity for councils and other participatory government structures.

Egyptian culture was influenced to some degree by Mesopotamia, Egypt separated from Mesopotamia in many ways other than politics. The Sumerian cuneiform alphabet developed by Mesopotamia was not accepted by the Egyptians; instead, they developed the hieroglyphic alphabet. In both Mesopotamia and Egypt, the system of writing was complex and therefore mainly used by the upper classes. Through the development of the papyrus, the Egyptians were able to reduce the cost of the writing materials and it developed extensive record keeping practices. Egypt, did not however establish the epic literary tradition that was prevalent in Mesopotamia.

Science in the Egyptian civilization was based on mathematics and astronomy, and was less advanced than the science of Mesopotamia. Egypt was first to establish the calendar of the solar year. The Egyptians used a calendar based on the natural cycles and it suggests that they were trying to predict the cycle of Nile flooding. The Egyptians also made important advances in medicine, some of which were passed to the Greeks and then to the Middle Eastern and European civilizations.

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