New York polling place circa 1900, showing voting booths on the left. Andrews, E. Benjamin. History of the United States, volume V. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. 1912.
During the late nineteenth century, Ohio elections were rife with corruption. It was very easy for candidates or their supporters to pay election officials to stuff voting boxes. In major cities, especially in Cincinnati, city bosses rigged elections in favor of one candidate over the others. Once elected, politicians were expected to provide the city bosses with government contracts and other monetary perks. If politicians refused, the city bosses would rig the next election in favor of another candidate.
James E. Campbell, who became Ohio's governor in 1890, made ballot reform one of the major issues of his administration. He declared that government failed to meet the people's needs "unless every elector is secured a free, secret, untrammeled and unpurchased ballot which shall be honestly counted and returned." The governor suggested that Ohio adopt the Australian Ballot System. Under the Australian Ballot System, all approved candidates would have their names and party designations listed on the official ballot. Before this point, voters wrote their choices on the ballot and were not provided with a list of candidates. Under the Australian Ballot System, voters would somehow mark the candidates for whom they were voting. Ballots were provided to voters only at polling locations and only on Election Day. Voters could not take ballots from the polling location. Voters would also place the ballots directly in voting boxes, limiting the opportunity for election officials to taint the process.
Governor Campbell hoped that the Australian Ballot System would reduce confusion and corruption. The Ohio legislature agreed, passing the Australian Ballot Law in 1891. While this legislation did not end corruption in politics, it greatly reduced illegal election activities.
- Cashman, Sean. America in the Gilded Age. N.p.: NYU Press, 1993.
- Painter, Nell Irwin. Standing at Armageddon: A Grassroots History of the Progressive Era. N.p.: W.W. Norton, 2008.
2Beckert, Sven, “Democracy and its Discontents: Contesting Suffrage Rights in Gilded Age New York,” Past and Present2 (2002): 114–55, here 155.
3 For example, Alexander Keyssar, The Right to Vote: The Contested History of Democracy in the United States (New York: Basic Books, 2000), 114–17; Donald W. Rogers, “Introduction: The Right to Vote in American History” in Voting and the Spirit of American Democracy: Essays on the History of Voting and Voting Rights in America, ed. Donald W. Rogers (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1992), 1–18, here 11–12; Paul Kleppner, Who Voted? The Dynamics of Electoral Turnout, 1870–1980 (New York: Praeger Publishers, 1982), 28–82.
4 David Quigley, Second Founding: New York City, Reconstruction, and the Making of American Democracy (New York: Hill and Wang, 2004), 32; on the postwar context, Eric Foner, Reconstruction. America's Unfinished Revolution. 1863–1877 (New York: Perennial Classics, 2002); Buchstein, Hubertus, “Geheime Abstimmung und Demokratiebewegung. Die politischen Ziele der Reformbewegung für das ‘Australian Ballot’ in den USA,” Politische Vierteljahresschrift31 (2000): 48–75, here 55; Beckert, “Democracy and its Discontents”; see also Mark W. Brewin, Celebrating Democracy. The Mass-Mediated Ritual of Election Day (New York: Peter Lang, 2008), 138; “The Protection of the Ballot in National Elections: Proceedings of the American Association of Social Scientists,” Journal of Social Science June (1869): 108; Michael E. McGerr, The Decline of Popular Politics: The American North, 1865–1928 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986), 393; see also letter from Edwin D. Godkin to Norton, February 28, 1865, in The Gilded Age Letters of Godkin, ed. William M. Armstrong (Albany: State University of New York, 1974), 21 f.
5 “South Carolina: Her Wrongs and the Remedy,” Remarks of Col. Richard Lathers, Delivered at the Opening of the Taxpayers' Convention, Columbia, SC, Feb. 17, 1874, Samuel J. Tilden Papers, NYPL (New York Public Library); Cf. Winchell, Alexander, “Experiment of Universal Suffrage,” The North American Review, 136/315 (1883): 119–34; Alexander Keyssar, “Voting” in Princeton Encyclopedia of American Political History, ed. Michael Kazin et al. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2009), 854–63, here 856.
6 This is a rarely studied part of NYC election history; see Quigley, David, “Acts of Enforcement: The New York City Election of 1870,” New York History83/3 (2002): 271–92.
7 Cited in letter of U.S. Marshal's Office, Southern District of New York, New York, to Hon A. T. Ackerman, 10.10.70, RG 60, Entry A1 9: Letters Received, 1809–70, Container 121, Folder: Southern District of New York (U.S. Marshal) Sept. 22, 1869–Nov. 26, 1870, NARA as well as further letters in this container.
8“Limited Sovereignty in the United States,” Atlantic Monthly43 (Feb. 1879): 185.
9 Sven Beckert, The Monied Metropolis. New York City and the Consolidation of the American Bourgeoisie, 1850–1896 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001), 2.
10 Charles Astor Bristed, The Upper Ten Thousand: Sketches of American Society By a New Yorker (London: Parker, 1852), 275. Quoted in Edwin G. Burrows and Mike Wallace, Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), 791.
11 Keyssar, Right to Vote, xxii–xxiii.
12 Mark W. Summers, The Plundering Generation: Corruption and the Crisis of the Union, 1849–1861 (New York, 1987), 303–4.
13 Common Council of the City of New York, 1828, NYC Common Council Papers, Box 115, Folder 2143, Elections 1828, NYCM.
14 Diary Entry, November 4, 1840, Philip Hone, The Diary of Philip Hone, 1828–1851, Vol. 2, ed. Bayard Tuckerman (New York: Dodd Mead, 1910), 51; see also Diary Entry, Dec. 17, 1835, Vol. 1, 184.
15 Petition Sames Pohner to Mayor, Aldermen + Commonalty of the City of New York, Nov. 20, 1829, NYC Common Council Papers, Box 122, Folder 2218, NYCMA (New York City Municipal Archives); files in NYC Common Council Papers, Box 129, Folder 2294, Elections 1830 and Box 135, Folder 2366, Elections 1831, NYCMA; Proceedings of the Board of Aldermen von 1830–1833, and Documents of the Board of Aldermen, No 1–2, 4–5, NYCM. Though, of course, there were also continuities, cf. Ronald Hayduk, Gatekeepers to the Franchise: Shaping Election Administration in New York (DeKalb: Northern Illinois University, 2005), 45 et passim; see also Charles Z. Lincoln, The Constitutional History of New York, Vol. III. 1894–1905 (Rochester, NY: The Lawyer's Co-Operative Pub. Co., 1906), 74–134.
16 Shelton Stromquist, Reinventing “The People”: The Progressive Movement, the Class Problem, and the Origins of Modern Liberalism (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2006), 67; Walter Nugent, Progressivism. A Very Short Introduction (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010), 64 and 115 f.; Steven L. Piott, American Reformers, 1870–1920. Progressives in Word and Deed (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2006), 10. Richard L. McCormick, “Public Life in Industrial America, 1877–1917” in The New American History, Revised and Expanded Edition, ed. Eric Foner (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1997), 107–32, here 109.
17Baker, Ray Stannard, “Negro Suffrage in a Democracy,” Atlantic Monthly106 (1910): 612–19, here 613 f.
18 Kirk Harold Porter, “Negro Suffrage. Disfranchising the Negro,” 1918 in Selected Articles on the Negro Problem, ed. Julia E. Johnson (New York: Wilson Company u. Grafton & Co., 1921), 199–203, here 199; E. L. Godkin, “The Republican Party and the Negro,” Forum VI (1889): 246–57, Foner, Reconstruction, 492 f.
19 Andrew Carnegie, Triumphant Democracy or Fifty Years' March of the Republic (London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle, & Rivington, 1886), 29, 221–22, 326 et passim.
20 See current state of research in Catherine Cocks, Peter C. Holloran, Alan Lessoff, “Introduction,” Historical Dictionary of the Progressive Era (Lanham, MC: Scarecrow Press, 2009), xxvii–l; Tracy L. Steffes, School, Society, and State: A New Education to Govern Modern America, 1890–1940 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012); for New York City, see John Louis Recchiuti, Civic Engagement: Social Science and Progressive-Era Reform in New York City (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007).
21 As an exception, see Stromquist, Reinventing, 67–70; Bass, Herbert, “The Politics of Ballot Reform in New York State, 1888–90,” New York History42:3 (1961): 253–72; Crook, Malcolm and Crook, Tom, “Reforming Voting Practices in a Global Age: The Making and Remaking of the Modern Secret Ballot in Britain, France and the United States, c. 1600–c. 1950,” Past & Present212 (2011): 199–237.
22 See for the current state of research Claudia Gatzka et. al. (ed.), Wahlen in der transatlantischen Moderne. (Leipzig: Leipziger Universitätsverlag, 2013); O'Gorman, Frank, “Campaign Rituals and Ceremonies: The Social Meaning of Elections in England, 1780–1860,” Past & Present135 (1992): 79–115.
23 Catherine Cocks, Peter C. Holloran, Alan Lessoff, “Introduction,” Dictionary of the Progressive Era, xxvii–l, here xxxi; Steven L. Piott, Daily Life in the Progressive Era (Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood, 2011), 133.
24Filene, Peter, “An Obituary for ‘The Progressive Movement,’” American Quarterly22:1 (1970): 20–34; for an overview of the debate, see Johnston, Robert D., “Re-Democratizing the Progressive Era: The Politics of Progressive Era Political Historiography,” Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era1 (2002): 68–92. Nugent, Progressivism, 1; James J. Connolly, The Triumph of Ethnic Progressivism: Urban Political Culture in Boston, 1900–1925 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1998), 8–14 and 77–78; Jon Woronoff, “Editor's Foreword” in Historical Dictionary of the Progressive Era (Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 2009), vii; see also the definitions of Michael McGerr, A Fierce Discontent: The Rise and Fall of the Progressive Movement in America, 1870–1920 (New York: Free Press, 2003), xiv–xvi; Robert Harrison, Congress, Progressive Reform, and the New American State (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 3–6.
25 Connolly, Triumph, 11 f.
26 Stromquist, Reinventing, viii.
27 McGerr, Fierce Discontent, xv.
28Lipset, Seymour Martin, “Still the Exceptional Nation?,” Wilson Quarterly24:1 (2000): 31–45.
29 Cf. Albert S. Bard Papers, NYPL; Alan Ware, “Anti-Partisan and Party Control of Political Reform in the United States: The Case of the Australian Ballot,” British Journal of Political Science30 (2000): 1–29.
30 Cf. the intriguingly antediluvian description of this world in Fredman, L. E., “Seth Low: Theorist of Municipal Reform,” Journal of American Studies6 (1972): 19–39.
31 Winchell “Experiment of Universal Suffrage,” 132 f.
32 Recchiuti, Civic Engagement, 99 f.
33 Bard Papers, 1896–1959, Box 18, Folder 8: Elections 1906–1939, NYPL, particularly “Statement on The Election Laws Improvement Association,” Feb. 9, 1906. Ivins was author of the esteemed book Machine Politics and Money in Elections in New York City (New York City, 1887), accessed June 25, 2013, http://www.archive.org/details/machinepolitics01ivingoog.
34 Bard Papers, 1896–1959, Box 18, Folder 8: Elections 1906–1939, NYPL.
35 Bard Papers, 1896–1959, files in Boxes 18, 62–64 and 69, NYPL.
36 Cf. W. M. Ivins, “On the Electoral System of the State of New York. A Paper presented at the Twenty-Ninth Annual Meeting of the New York Bar Association,” Jan. 17, 1906, Bard Papers, Box 73, NYPL; “The Worthless Ballot Law,” New York Times, May 29, 1908; Woodruff, Clinton Rogers, “Election Methods and Reforms in Philadelphia,” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science27 (1901): 181–204; Joseph P. Harris, Registration of Voters in the United States (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1929).
37 Jacob A. Riis, How the Other Half Lives (New York: Charles Scribener's Sons, 1890), 43.
38 See footnote below.
39 Howard W. Allen and Kay W. Allen, “Vote Fraud and Data Validity” in Analysing Electoral History: A Guide to the Study of American Voting Behavior, ed. Jerome M. Clubb et al. (Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, 1981), 171; see also Paul Kleppner, “Defining Citizenship: Immigration and the Struggle for Voting Rights in Antebellum America” in Voting and the Spirit of American Democracy: Essays on the History of Voting and Voting Rights in America, ed. Donald W. Rogers (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1992), 43–54; Frances Fox Piven et al., Keeping Down the Black Vote: Race and the Demobilization of American Voters (New York: New Press, 2009); Janet B. Lane: Voter Registration (New York: Nova Science, 2002); Hayduk, Gatekeepers; Michael Perman, Struggle for Mastery: Disfranchisement in the South, 1888–1908 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001), 15. Cf. Lessoff, Alan and Connolly, James J., “From Political Insult to Political Theory: The Boss, the Machine, and the Pluralist City,” Journal of Policy History25:2 (Spring 2013): 139–72.
40 Referring to a quotation by the philosopher William James in 1899, McGerr, Fierce Discontent, xv; cf. Walter D. Burnham, Critical Elections and the Mainsprings of American Politics (New York: Norton, 1970).
41 Fredman, The Australian Ballot; Buchstein, “Geheime Abstimmung.”
42 Kleppner, Who Voted?, 28–82.
43 Mark L. Kornbluh, Why America Stopped Voting: The Decline of Participatory Democracy and the Emergence of Modern American Politics (New York: New York University Press, 2000), 2.
44 Glenn C. Altschuler and Stuart M. Blumin, Rude Republic: Americans and Their Politics in the Nineteenth Century (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2000), 269.
45 Randall G. Holcombe, From Liberty to Democracy: The Transformation of American Government (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2002), 139.
46 Norbert Elias, The Civilizing Process (Oxford: Blackwell, 2000; first German edition 1939), 365–81.
47 Just some typical examples of documents: About Sixth Ward Elections, Minutes of the Common Council of the City of New York, Bd. VI, S. 406–19, Dec. 3, 1910, NYCMA; “More Arrests for Illegal Voting Than He Has Ever Known,” New York Times, Nov. 8, 1905; “Incidents of the day,” New York Times, Nov. 8, 1905; “Hearst Fight to-morrow,” Evening Post, Nov. 13, 1905; “Hearst Gains Grow in Ballot Recount,” New York Times, Nov. 29, 1908—and many more articles in the New York Times; files in Bard Papers, 1896–1959, Box 18 + 62, NYPL; letters in Gaynor Administration, Box 21, Folder 190, Board of Elections, 1910, NYCMA; Oakey A. Hall, 1869–72, Board of Elections, Affidavits re: Election Fraud, Box 1217, Roll 15, Folder 15, 1871, NYCMA; Edward Ridley Finch: “The Fight for a Clean Ballot,” The Independent, May 12, 1910. See also John I. Davenport, Election Frauds of New York City and their Prevention (New York, 1881); Bernheim, Abram C., “The Ballot in New York,” Political Science Quarterly4:1 (1889): 130–52; Chester H. Rowell, A Historical and Legal Digest of All the Contested Election Cases in the House of Representatives of the US from the First to the Fifty-Sixth Congress, 1789–1901 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1901); Riis, How the Other Half Lives, 43 and 104; see also Wesser, Robert F., “The Impeachment of a Governor: William Sulzer and the Politics of Excess,” New York History60:4 (1979): 407–38; Argersinger, Peter H., “New Perspectives on Election Fraud in the Gilded Age,” Political Science Quarterly100:4 (1985/1986): 669–87, here 672, 674, 678–83.
48 City of New York, Office of the Commissioner of Accounts to William J. Gaynor, Mayor, Aug. 20, 1912, Bard Papers, Box 62, NYPL; John G. Saxe (Of Counsel for Mayor McClellan during the Hearst-McClellan Recount): Judge Lambert's Ruling on the Marking of Ballots, New York 1909, Bard Papers, 1896–1959, NYPL; Files in Honest Ballot Assn. Ballot Reform, 1899–1912 and many other records in Bard Papers, 1896–1959, NYPL; the National Archives are full of election fraud evidence; see, for example, files in the National Archives RG 60, Entry 54, 4728/ Year 1889, Box 417, NARA; RG 60, Entry A1 9: Letter Received, Delaware, 1852/70, Con. 78, NARA.
49 See, for example, Georg von Below, Das parlamentarische Wahlrecht in Deutschland (Berlin: Karl Curtius, 1909), 140; Hans Delbrück, Regierung und Volkswille (Berlin: Georg Stilke, 1914), 133; “Die Macht der Stimme,” Der Tag, Feb., 15, 1913, and many other newspaper articles.
50 Paul Kleppner, Continuity and Change in Electoral Politics, 1893–1928 (New York: Greenwood Press, 1987), 168; Allen and Allen, Vote Fraud, 167.
51 Altschuler and Blumin, Rude Republic; Richard Franklin Bensel, The American Ballot Box in the Mid-Nineteenth Century (Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 2004).
52 Cf. the overview of the discussion in Kornbluh, Why America Stopped Voting, 2–3; and Argersinger, “New Perspectives;” James, Scott C. and Lawson, Brian L., “The Political Economy of Voting Rights Enforcement in America's Gilded Age: Electoral College Competition, Partisan Commitment, and the Federal Election Law,” American Political Association93:1 (1999): 115–31; Kenneth Finegold, Experts and Politicians: Reform Challenges to Machine Politics in New York, Cleveland, and Chicago (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1995); Warren Sloat, A Battle for the Soul of New York: Tammany Hall, Police Corruption, Vice, and Reverend Charles Parkhurst's Crusade against Them, 1892–1895 (New York: Cooper Square, 2002); Frank Vos, “Tammany Hall,” Encyclopedia of New York City (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1995), 1149–51; see also about frauds—Wesser, Robert F., “The Impeachment of a Governor: William Sulzer and the Politics of Excess” in New York History60:4 (1979): 407–38. See about earlier discussions Fredman, “Seth Low,” 19 and 38.
53Johnston, Henry P., “New York after the Revolution 1783–1789,” Magazine of American History29:4 (1893): 310–11; George B. Tindall and David Emory Shi, America: A Narrative History (New York: Oxford University Press, 2010), 741; Speech of Jonathan Bourne, “Popular v. Delegated Government,” May 1, 1910, filed in Bard Papers, 1896–1959, Box 69, Folder 15, NYPL; Leaflet “To the Senate and Assembly of the State of New York,” around 1908, Illustration of Principle, Bard Papers, Box 64, Folder 2, NYPL; Jefferson M. Levy The Elector's Hand Book or Digest of the Election Laws of the State of New York, Applicable to the City of New York (New York: William P. Mitchell, 1895), 3.
54 Leaflet, “Put the bosses out and put the people in. An open letter sent by Arthur S. Leland to Charles H. Young, President of the Republican Club or the City of New York, On Direct Mandatory Nominations,” Feb. 11, 1909, George Bliss Agnew Papers, 1868–1941, Box 6, Folder 3, NYPL.
55 Letter to Harrington Putnam of the Brooklyn Democratic Club, dated Brooklyn, Oct. 31, 1901, Published in Brooklyn Daily Eagle, Nov. 1, 1901, Richard R. Bowker Papers, Box 93, Writings, NYPL. “Miscellanious,” typewritten, without date and place, ca. 1912, Richard R. Bowker Papers, NYPL. Leaflet “To the Senate and Assembly of the State of New York,” around 1908, Illustration of Principle, Bard Papers, Box 64, Folder 2, NYPL.
56 Leaflet, “The Theory of Our Government,” ca. 1895, David B. Hill Papers, 1886–1910, NYPL.
57 Leaflet, “Put the bosses out and put the people in. An open letter sent by Arthur S. Leland to Charles H. Young, President of the Republican Club of the City of New York” On Direct Mandatory Nominations,” Feb. 11, 1909, George Bliss Agnew Papers, 1868–1941, Box 6, Folder 3, NYPL.
58 Leaflet, “WANTED A FAIR ELECTION LAW,” Reform Club, 233 Fifth Avenue, New York, Feb. 7, 1899, Bard Papers, Box 62, Folder 3, Honest Ballot Assn. Ballot Reform, 1899–1912, NYPL.
59 Petition, To the Legislature of the State of New York, 1897, George Bliss Agnew Papers, 1868–1941, Box 6, Folder 4, NYPL; “Editorial. The Missing Voters,” New York Times, Apr. 21, 1926.
60 Meeting of Executive Committee of the Electoral Laws Improvement Assn. held at office of Mr.Ivins, the President, Jan. 12, 1906, Box 18, Folder 8: Elections 1906–1939, Bard Papers, 1896–1959, NYPL; “The Election Laws Improvement Association,” ca. 1906, Bard Papers, 1896–1959, NYPL.
61 Papers in NYC Van Wyck, Robert A. Administration, Box 7, Folder 72, Board of Election 1901, NYCMA; Pamphlet: “The Short Ballot in the State of New York,” Mar. 1914, The New York Short Ballot Organization, NYHS (New York Historical Society); Petition “Call for National Conference on Primary Election Reform” by Abram S. Hewitt and many others, National Civic Federation records, 1894–1949, Box 158, Folder 3: National Conference on Practical Reform of Primary Elections, NYPL; Statement, Feb. 9, 1906, Bard Papers, Box 18, Folder 8, NYPL; see also advertisement “To all Citizens interested in an honest Count,” New York Times, Nov. 2, 1905; files about the reformer Beverley R. Robinson, in Robinson Family Papers 1822–1966, Box 10, Folder 1 + 3, NYHS; Vernon S. Bradley, The Wilson Ballot in Maryland Politics, Cambridge, MD, undated.
62 Leaflet, “WANTED A FAIR ELECTION LAW,” Reform Club, New York, Feb. 7, 1899, Bard Papers, Box 62, Folder 3, NYPL.
63 Which is a common pattern of thought in election history, one that, for example, can be found in the thought of the early liberals in Germany.
64 “$1000 In Rewards for Evidence of Illegal Registration,” box 68, fold. 10: Political Literature for NYC elections, ca. 1914, Bard Papers, 1896–1959, NYPL.
65 Memorial, undated, George Bliss Agnew Papers, 1868–1941, box 6, fold. 3, NYPL; Albert S. Bard to George W. Kessler, June 23, 1815, box 66, fold. 11: Watchers. Suffrage, Bard Papers, NYPL; “Limits suffrage Watchers,” New York Times, July 26, 1915.
66 Trouble Sheet, 1912, Bard Papers, box 65, fold. 9, NYPL.
67 John I. Davenport, The Election and Naturalization Fraud in New York City. 1860–1870. Second Edition (New York, 1894), 3.
68 Robert H. Wiebe, The Search for Order, 1877–1920 (New York: Hill and Wang, 1992), 45.
69 Recchiuti, Civic Engagement, 99.
70 Stromquist, Reinventing, 70.
71 Davenport, Election and Naturalization Fraud; Richard Henry Dana, The Australian Ballot System of Massachusetts: Some Fallacious Objections Answered (New York: The City Club of New York, 1911); Harris, Registration of Voters; cf. for scientific discourses and elections Richter, Hedwig, “Disziplinierung und Nationsbildung durch politische Wahlen. Preußen und USA in der zweiten Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts bis zum Ersten Weltkrieg,” Comparativ1 (2013): 20–40, here 28–31; cf. about the importance of scientific arguments for Progressives Bob P.–Taylor, Citizenship and Democratic Doubt: The Legacy of Progressive Thought (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2004), 1, 134–5.
72 Bensel, American Ballot Box.
73 Registration Book, 1921, MANYC.
74Finch, Edward Ridley, “The Fight for a Clean Ballot,” IndependentLXVIII, 1020 (1910): 1020–29.
75Morrison, J. Cayce, “New York State Regents Literacy Test” in The Journal of Educational Research12:2 (1925), 145–55; Young-In Oh, Struggles over Immigrants' Language: Literacy Tests in the United States, 1917–1966 (El Paso, TX: LFB Scholarly Publishing, 2012).
76 Keyssar, Right to Vote, 145 and table A.13.
77 Meeting of Executive Committee of the Electoral Laws Improvement Assn. held at office of Mr. Ivins, the president, Jan. 12, 1906, Box 18, Folder 8: Elections 1906–1939, Bard Papers, 1896–1959, NYPL.
78 Information about “The Election Laws Improvement Association,” Analysis of Ballot Bill, #5, February 9, 1906, and Meeting of Executive Committee of the Electoral Laws Improvement Assn., Jan. 12, 1906, Box 18, Folder 8: Elections 1906–1939, Bard Papers, 1896–1959, NYPL.
79 John G. Saxe (ed.), Judge Lambert's Rulings, ca. 1905, 3, Bard Papers, Box 73, NYPL.
80 See specimen tickets and deliberations in Bard Papers, Box 69, NYPL; “Hearst Fight to-morrow,” Evening Post, Nov. 13, 1905; “Hearst Men Gather Proofs,” New York Times, Nov. 12, 1905; Bard Papers, Box 18, Folder 8 + Box 62, Folder 1, NYPL; William M. Ivins, “On the Electoral System of the State of New York. A Paper presented at the Twenty-Ninth Annual Meeting of the New York Bar Association,” Jan. 17, 1906, Bard Papers, Box 73, NYPL.
81 Brochure, “Instructions for Election Day,” Albany, 1904, Bard Papers, Box 66, NYPL.
82 Ticket Samples, Bard Papers, Box 69, NYPL.
83 Voorhis, Board of Elections of the City of New York, to McClellan, Oct. 20, 1904, McClellan, George B. Administration, Box 27, Folder 28, Board of Elections 1904, NYCMA; Board of Elections to Mayor Gaynor, 8.2.1910 + President John T. Dooling to Gaynor, Mayor, June 10,1910, Gaynor, William J. Administration, Box 21, Folder 190, Board of Elections 1910, NYCMA; secretary, Board of elections, to Mr. Quinn, Brooklyn, NY, June 10, 1914, Mitchel, John P. Administration, Box 25, Folder 263, Board of Election 1914, NYCMA; President Boyle, Board of Elections, to S. L. Martin, Executive Secretary, Mayor's Office, NY City, Dec. 12, 1917, Mayor Mitchel, John P. Administration, Box 25, Folder 266, Board of Election 1917, NYCMA; cf. also “Political Leaders Seek no Reforms” in New York Times, June 2, 1915; “Wallstein Praises Board of Elections” in New York Times, June 5, 1915; Note of Police Department of the City of New York, 300 Mulberry Street, Oct., 29, 1906, Bard Papers, 1896–1959, Box 66, Folder 1, NYPL; cf. list of polling places in “Election Notice” in New York Tribune, Nov. 5, 1912; Inspectors of Elections to Board of Election, undated (ca. Nov.1910), Gaynor, William J. Administration, Box 21, Folder 190, Board of Elections 1910, NYCMA; see also Thomas Welskopp, Amerikas große Ernüchterung. Eine Kulturgeschichte der Prohibition (Paderborn: Schöningh, 2010), 33 f., 62.
84 Detail, Leaflet, Instruction manual for U.S. Standard Voting Machine, Bard Papers, Box 6, NYPL.
85 Cf. Recchiuti, Civic Engagement; see also Lionel E. Fredman, The Australian Ballot: The Story of an American Reform (East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1968), ix f.
86 Rudyard Kipling, Letters of Travel: 1892–1913 (London 1920), accessed June 25, 2013, http://www.gutenberg.org/files/12089/12089-h/12089-h.htm.
87 Petition “Call for National Conference on Primary Election Reform,” (ca. 50) citizens of New York, Chicago, Boston, St. Louis, 1898, Box 158, Folder 3: National Conference on Practical Reform of Primary Elections, National Civic Federation Records, 1894–1949, NYPL.
88 Davenport, Election Frauds, 71.
89Harper's Weekly, Nov. 13, 1858.
90 Bensel, American Ballot Box, 9.
91 Police Department of the City of New York, Oct. 29, 1906, Bard Papers, Box 66, Folder 1, NYPL; see the list of polling places in “Election Notice,” New York Tribune, Nov. 5, 1912; cf. also Inspectors of Elections to Board of Election, undated (ca. o1910), Office of the Mayor, Gaynor, William J. Administration, Box 21, Folder 190, Board of Elections 1910, MANYC.
92 E. Benjamin Andrews, History of the United States, Vol. V. (New York: Scribner's Sons, 1912), 26.
93 Election Law State of New York, Amendment of 1916, http://www21.us.archive.org/stream/electionlawstat00offigoog/electionlawstat00offigoog_djvu.txt; President Boyle, Board of Elections, to S. L. Martin, Executive Secretary, Mayor's Office, NY City, 12,10,1917, NYC Office of the Mayor Mitchel, John P. Administration, Box 25, Folder 266, Board of Election 1917, MANYC; President Dooling, Election Board of the City of New York, to Miss Lillian D. Wald, New York City, Aug. 10,1910, Office of the Mayor, Gaynor, William J. Administration, Box 21, Folder 190, Board of Elections 1910, MANYC; Board of Elections annual report for the year 1915, NYC Office of the Mayor Mitchel, John P. Administration, Box 25, Folder 265, Board of Election 1916, also Folder 264, Board of Election 1915, MANYC.
94 President Boyle, Board of Elections, to Hon. William Williams, Commissioner, Dep. of Water supply, Gas & Electricity, Municipal Building, Manhattan, N. Y. City, Nov 4,1916, NYC Office of the Mayor Mitchel, John P. Administration, Box 25, Folder 265, Board of Election 1916, MANYC.
95 Quoted in “Board of Elections Reports in Favor of Their Use in Primaries,” Evening Post, Jan 17, 1916, Bard Papers, 1896–1959, NYPL.
96 Joseph P. Harris, Election Administration in the United States (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1934), 320.
97 Stromquist, Reinventing, ix. Nugent, Progressivism, 5; McCormick, “Public Life,” 125; C. Vann Woodward, Origins of the New South 1877–1913 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1971).
98 McGerr, Fierce Discontent, 192.
99 “The Career of Edwin L. Godwin,” New York Times, Apr. 20, 1907.
100 See about elections in that time Hedwig Richter, “Discipline and Elections: Registration of Voters in the USA,” Constitutional Cultures: On the Concept and Representation of Constitutions in the Atlantic World, eds. Silke Hensel et al. (Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars, 2012), 427–48.
101 James M. McPherson, The Abolitionist Legacy: From Reconstruction to the NAACP (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1975), 38–39; Nancy Cohen, The Reconstruction of American Liberalism. 1865–1914 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002), 47 u. 133; on Godkin, see Foner, Reconstruction, 492 f.
102Godkin, E. L., “The Republican Party and the Negro,” ForumVI (1889): 246–57, here 257.
103 Du Bois, W. E. B., “The Black Vote of Philadelphia,” Charities (Oct. 5, 1905): 31–35, here 32.
104 Manfred Berg, The Ticket to Freedom: Die NAACP und das Wahlrecht der Afro-Amerikaner (New York: Campus, 2000), 57; see also Ray Stannard Baker, Following the Color Line (New York: Doubleday, Page & Company, 1908), 302 f.
105 Davenport, Election Frauds, Title page.
106 Quoted in Perman, Struggle, 30.
107Times-Democrat, Feb. 7,1898, quoted in Fredman, Australian Ballot, 79.
108 “The Election Law. Instructions and Directions,” Columbia 1920, 8–9, L35021, Election Files, South Carolina Department of Archives and History; Simon, Bryant, “The Devaluation of the Vote: Legislative Apportionment and Inequality in South Carolina, 1890–1962,” South Carolina Historical Magazine101:3 (2000): 234–52, here 235.
109 “Die Wahlrechtskundgebung im Zirkus Busch,” Berliner Tageblatt, Feb. 28, 1910.
110 “Die Wahlrechtskundgebung im Zirkus Busch,” Berliner Tageblatt, Feb. 29, 1910.
111 Daniel T. Rodgers, Atlantiküberquerungen: die Politik der Sozialreform, 1870–1945 (Stuttgart: Steiner, 2010); cf. also J. Powell Williams, The Ballot Act, and Corrupt Practices at Elections. A Paper Read at a Conference of Liberals, held at Southampton on November 30th, 1880 (Birmingham 1880); cf. about France Pierre Rosanvallon, Le sacre du citoyen (Paris: Éditions Gallimard, 1992), 490–504; see also Jürgen Osterhammel, Die Verwandlung der Welt. Eine Geschichte des 19. Jahrhunderts (München: Beck, 2009), 59.
112 Osterhammel, Verwandlung, 59.
113 Cocks, Holloran and Lessoff, “Introduction,” xxix; e.g., Henry Winthrop Hardon to Bard, Nov. 9, 1905, Honest Ballot Assn. Ballot Reform, 1899–1912, Box 62, Folder 3, NYPL, and Campaign Book of the Citizens' Union. The City for the People! (New York, October 1901); likewise White, Andrew, “The Government of American Cities,” The Forum, 10 (1890), 357–72.
114 Sebastian Conrad, Globalgeschichte, München 2013, 157.
115 Müller, Nach dem Ersten Weltkrieg, 40.
116 Jörg Fisch, Europa zwischen Wachstum und Gleichheit 1850–1914 (Stuttgart: Ulmer, 2002), 280.