Presentation on theme: "HOW TO WRITE A LITERARY ANALYSIS ESSAY"— Presentation transcript:
1 HOW TO WRITE A LITERARY ANALYSIS ESSAY
THE ELEMENTS OF A SOLID ESSAY
2 The Thesis Statement Tells your reader what to expect
It is a restricted.Sentence that states the purpose of your essay -- the point you are trying to make.Without a carefully conceived thesis, an essay has no chance of success.A thesis statement falls at the end of your introductory paragraph.
3 Thesis ExamplesGwendolyn Brooks‟s 1960 poem “The Ballad of Rudolph Reed” demonstrates how the poet uses the conventional poetic form of the ballad to treat the unconventional poetic subject of racial intolerance.The fate of the main characters in Antigone by Jean Anouilh illustrates the danger of excessive pride.The imagery in Dylan Thomas’s poem “Fern Hill” reveals the ambiguity of humans’ relationship with nature.
4 The IntroductionThe introduction to your literary analysis essay should try to capture your reader’s interest.It should bring immediate focus to your subject.You may want to use a quotation, a provocative question, a brief anecdote, a startling statement, or a combination of these.You may also want to include background information relevant to your thesis and necessary for the reader to understand the position you are taking.In addition, you need to include the title of the work of literature and name of the author.
5 Introduction Sample 1What would one expect to be the personality of a man who has his wife sent away to a convent (or perhaps has had her murdered) because she took too much pleasure in the sunset and in a compliment paid to her by another man? It is just such a man—a Renaissance duke—who Robert Browning portrays in his poem “My Last Duchess.” A character analysis of the Duke reveals that through his internal dialogue, his interpretation of earlier incidents, and his actions, his traits—arrogance, jealousy, and greediness—emerge.
6 Introduction Sample 2The first paragraph of Alberto Alvaro Rios’s short story “The Secret Lion” presents a twelve-year-old boy’s view of growing up—everything changes. As the narrator informs the reader, when the magician pulls a tablecloth out from under a pile of dishes, children are amazed at the “stay-the-same part,” while adults focus only on the tablecloth itself (42). Adults have the benefit of experience and know the trick will work as long as the technique is correct. When people “grow up,” they gain this experience and knowledge but lose their innocence and sense of wonder. In other words, the price paid for growing up is a permanent sense of loss. This tradeoff is central to “The Secret Lion.” The key symbols in the story reinforce its main theme: change is inevitable and always accompanied by a sense of loss.
7 Introduction Sample 3The setting of John Updike’s story “A & P” is crucial to the reader’s understanding of Sammy’s decision to quit his job. Even though Sammy knows that his quitting will make life more difficult for him, he instinctively insists upon rejecting what the A & P represents in the story. When he rings up a “No Sale” and “saunter[s]” out of the store, Sammy leaves behind not only a job but the rigid state of mind associated with the A & P. Although Sammy is the central character in the story, Updike seems to invest as much effort in describing the setting as he does Sammy. The title, after all, is not “Youthful Rebellion” or “Sammy Quits” but “A & P.” The setting is the antagonist of the story and plays a role that is as important as Sammy’s.
8 The Body of the Essay/Topic Sentence
To relate the details of the paragraph to your thesis statement.To tie the details of the paragraph together.The substance of each of your developmental paragraphs (the body of your essay) will be the explanations, summaries, paraphrases, specific details, and direct quotationsYou need to support and develop the more general statement you have made in your topic sentence.
9 Body Format/ Example TOPIC SENTENCE EXPLANATIONS AND TEXTUAL EVIDENCE
Sammy's descriptions of the A & P present a setting that is ugly, monotonous, and rigidly regulated. The chain store is a common fixture in modern society, so the reader can identify with the uniformity Sammy describes. The fluorescent light is as blandly cool as the "checkerboard green-and-cream rubber tile floor" (486). The "usual traffic in the store moves in one direction (except for the swim suited girls, who move against it), and everything is neatly organized and categorized in tidy aisles. The dehumanizing routine of this environment is suggested by Sammy's offhand references to the typical shoppers as "sheep," "house slaves," and "pigs” (486). These regular customers seem to walk through the store in a stupor; as Sammy indicates, not even dynamite could move them out of their routine (485).
10 The ConclusionYour literary analysis essay should have a concluding paragraph that gives your essay a sense of completeness.Lets your readers know that they have come to the end ofyour paper.Your concluding paragraph might restate the thesis in different words, summarize the main points you have made, or make a relevant comment about the literary work you are analyzing, but from a different perspective.Do not introduce a new topic in your conclusion.
11 Conclusion Example Browning's poem "My Last Duchess":
If the Duke has any redeeming qualities, they fail to appear in the poem. Browning's emphasis on the Duke's traits of arrogance, jealousy, and materialism make it apparent that anyone who might have known the Duke personally would have based his opinion of him on these three personality "flaws." Ultimately, the reader’s opinion of the Duke is not a favorable one, and it is clear that Browning intended that the reader feel this way.
12 Audience Consider the reader for whom you are writing your essay.
Imagine you are writing for not only the grader but also the other students in your class who have about as much education as you do.They have read the assigned work just as you have, but perhaps they have not thought about it in exactly the same way.In other words, it is not necessary to "retell" the work of literature in any way.Rather, it is your role to be the explainer or interpreter of the work—to tell what certain elements of the work mean in relation to your central idea (thesis).When you make references to the text of the short story, poem, or play, you are doing so to remind your audience of something they already know.The principle emphasis of your essay is to draw conclusions and develop arguments. Be sure to avoid plot summary.
13 USING TEXTUAL EVIDENCE
The skillful use of textual evidence -- summary, paraphrase, specific detail, and direct quotations -- can illustrate and support the ideas you are developing in your essay.However, textual evidence should be used judiciously and only when it directly relates to your topic.The correct and effective use of textual evidence is vital to the successful literary analysis essay.
14 SummaryIf a key event or series of events in the literary work support a point you are trying to make, you may want to include a brief summary, making sure that you show the relevance of the event or events by explicitly connecting your summary to your point.EXAMPLE"The Secret Lion" (B):The boys find the grinding ball, but later attempt to bury it (SUMMARY). Burying it is their futile attempt to make time stand still and to preserve perfection (RELEVANCE).
15 ParaphraseYou can make use of paraphrase when you need the details of the original, but not necessarily the words of the original: paraphrase to put someone else's words into your own words.Original: "I was twelve and in junior high school and something happened that we didn't have a name for, but it was nonetheless like a lion, and roaring, roaring that way the biggest things do."Paraphrase: Early in the story, the narrator tells us that when he turned twelve and started junior high school, life changed in a significant way that he and his friends could not quite name or identify.
16 Specific DetailVarious types of details from the text lend concrete support to the development of the central idea of your literary analysis essay.These details add credibility to the point you are developing.Example: details which could have been used in the developmental paragraph from the paper on John Updike's short story "A & P“."usual traffic""fluorescent lights""checkerboard green-and-cream rubber-tile floor""electric eye"shoppers like "sheep," "house slaves," and "pigs"neatly stacked fooddynamite
17 Using Direct Quotations
Quotations can illuminate and support the ideas you are trying to develop.A judicious use of quoted material will make your points clearer and more convincing.Make sure you explain how the evidence is relevant—let the reader know why the quotes you cite are significant to your argument.
18 Quote “Prose” ExampleBrief quotations (four lines or fewer of prose and three lines or fewer of poetry) should be carefully introduced and integrated into the text of your paper.Put quotation marks around all briefly quoted material.Prose example:As the "manager" of the A & P, Lengel is both the guardian and enforcer of "policy" (487). When he gives the girls "that sad Sunday-school-superintendent stare," the reader becomes aware of Lengel‟s character as the A & P's version of a dreary bureaucrat who "doesn't miss much" (487).
19 Quote “Poetry” Example
Make sure you give page numbers when necessary. Notice that in this example the page numbers are in parenthesis after the quotation marks but before the period.From the beginning, the Duke in Browning's poem gives the reader a sense of how possessive he really is: "That's my last Duchess on the wall, / Looking as if she were alive" (1-2). The reader cannot help but notice how, even though the Duke is talking about her portrait, his main concern is that she belongs to him.Notice that line # 1 is separated from line # 2 by a slash. Make sure you give the line numbers when necessary.
20 Quote “Length” Example
Lengthy quotations should be separated from the text of your paper.More than four lines of prose should be double spaced and indented ten spaces from the left margin, with the right margin the same as the rest of your paper.More than three lines of poetry should be double spaced and centered on the page.Note: do not use quotation marks to set off these longer passages because the indentation itself indicates that the material is quoted.
21 Brackets….If any words are added to a quotation in order to explain who or what the quotation refers to, you must use brackets to distinguish your addition from the original source.Example:The literary critic John Strauss asserts that "he [Young Goodman Brown] is portrayed as self-righteous and disillusioned" (10). Brackets are used here because there is no way of knowing who "he" is unless you add that information.
22 Ellipsis…You must use ellipsis if you omit any words from the original source you are quoting.Ellipsis can be used at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end of the quotation, depending on where the missing words were originally. Ellipsis is formed by either three or four periods with a space between each period.Original: "Early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise."Example (omission from beginning):This behavior ". . . makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise." Ellipsis formed by three dots after the quotation marks.8Example (omission from middle):This maxim claims that "Early to bed makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise."Example (omission from end):He said, "Early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy " Ellipsis is formed by four dots before the quotation marks -- the fourth dot is really a period which ends the sentence.
- Из всех различий между ураном и плутонием наверняка есть такое, что выражается простым числом. Это наша главная цель. Простое число. Джабба посмотрел на таблицу, что стояла на мониторе, и всплеснул руками.